Chapter four details the three major forms of response: agree, disagree, and agree but with a difference. You can argue anything.

Remember, not everything has to be an argument. For this class, we will focus on responding to arguments/conversations.


One thing to keep in mind before we move on. The source you are responding to needs to be considered first. If the source is unreliable, biased, fake, wrong, or otherwise misinformed, your response will be affected.

What do we need to consider then with sources? 

The Science News Cycle

There is a whole field now dedicated to this in higher education. Critical Literacy focuses on learning to research and evaluating sources.

Why do you think this is important? Why did it come about?

What is misinformation? What is propaganda?

For another time, there is a whole website dedicated to this for higher education. It has some great case studies to consider.

Here is their definition for Bullshit.

Bullshit is language, statistical figures, data graphics, and other forms of presentation intended to persuade by impressing and overwhelming a reader or listener, with a blatant disregard for truth and logical coherence.

Summary First

In reading your responses, I noticed that some were responding before the summary.

Why do we need to summarize first? 

This is especially important for articles and arguments that are complex and broad.

Respond Second

After you have summarized correctly, then you should respond. Either agree, disagree, or other. Be clear what you are responding to.

Do you need to respond to every point the author is making or should you respond to a singular idea/ conversation they mention? 

We will study fallacies more in depth, but keep in mind that the summary has to be accurate and on topic or you can fall in to logical fallacies.

Stating an Argument Clearly and Early

For the summary/response, you should state your argument clearly early. Use a template for your position.

Why is it important to state your position early? Where is a good place to state your argument?

Balko “What you eat is your Business”

Take a few minutes and answer these questions. Does he state his argument early in the text? What are the main points he is making?

Responding Templates

The book includes many templates. Including to Disagree p. 60, Agreeing p. 62, and Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously p. 64.

Write a response using the templates to one of the articles we have read. Bonus if you pick the article you are going to do for the first paper. You have to write three responses, One agreeing, one disagreeing, and one both agreeing and disagreeing simultaneously.

Why did we do this exercise?

Pop-Up Debate

Take a few minutes and write down some notes about the articles we read for today. We will be having a class debate and you can agree, disagree, or other to a point. You can also summarize first, if the debate has moved on from the point you want to make.

Freedman “How Junk Food can end Obesity”

Freedman Lesson