global warming picture
Imagine​ ​your​ ​great​ ​great​ ​great​ ​great​ ​grandchildren​ ​living​ ​in​ ​a​ ​world​ ​that​ ​does​ ​not​ ​have the​ ​luxury​ ​of​ ​seeing​ ​polar​ ​bears​ ​or​ ​penguins.​ ​Unfortunately​ ​it​ ​is​ ​a​ ​possibility​ ​that​ ​was​ ​caused​ ​by us​ ​humans.​ ​Scientist​ ​have​ ​recently​ ​been​ ​discussing​ ​the​ ​topics​ ​of​ ​global​ ​warming​ ​and​ ​climate change​ ​with​ ​more​ ​urgency.​ ​Global​ ​warming​ ​and​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​need​ ​a​ ​solution​ ​to​ ​be​ ​found immediately.​ ​More​ ​people​ ​need​ ​to​ ​be​ ​informed​ ​and​ ​understand​ ​that​ ​their​ ​actions​ ​are​ ​causing​ ​the earth​ ​to​ ​transform​ ​in​ ​front​ ​of​ ​their​ ​eyes.​ ​There​ ​is​ ​no​ ​doubt​ ​that​ ​a​ ​great​ ​deal​ ​of​ ​research​ ​still​ ​needs to​ ​be​ ​done​ ​but​ ​from​ ​what​ ​scientist​ ​know​ ​now​ ​it​ ​is​ ​clear​ ​that​ ​both​ ​global​ ​warming​ ​and​ ​climate change​ ​have​ ​become​ ​a​ ​major​ ​issue.​ ​Human​ ​have​ ​significantly​ ​contributed​ ​to​ ​global​ ​warming​ ​and climate​ ​change​ ​through​ ​the​ ​release​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​causing​ ​many​ ​problems.​ ​The​ ​Earth’s temperature​ ​is​ ​rising,​ ​the​ ​sea​ ​levels​ ​are​ ​rising,​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​certain​ ​species​ ​are​ ​decreasing,​ ​and 
precipitation​ ​has​ ​increased​ ​around​ ​the​ ​world.​ ​These​ ​are​ ​only​ ​just​ ​a​ ​few​ ​consequences,​ ​if​ ​we​ ​don’t act​ ​now​ ​the​ ​end​ ​result​ ​could​ ​be​ ​much​ ​more​ ​worse.​ ​Yet​ ​some​ ​still​ ​believe​ ​that​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​was 
not​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​humans.  
Well,​ ​what​ ​exactly​ ​are​ ​global​ ​warming​ ​and​ ​climate​ ​change?​ ​Global​ ​warming​ ​simply 
refers​ ​to​ ​the​ ​rapidly​ ​rising​ ​temperature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​earth.​ ​Climate​ ​change​ ​refers​ ​to​ ​both the​ ​warming of​ ​the​ ​earth​ ​and​ ​the​ ​consequences​ ​that​ ​come​ ​along​ ​with​ ​it.​ ​Climate​ ​change​ ​unlike​ ​global​ ​warming however,​ ​is​ ​usually​ ​seen​ ​as​ ​a​ ​human-caused​ ​issue.​ ​Although​ ​they​ ​have​ ​somewhat​ ​different definitions,​ ​both​ ​seem​ ​to​ ​be​ ​caused​ ​by​ ​the​ ​same​ ​element,​ ​greenhouse​ ​gasses.​ ​Greenhouse​ ​gases are​ ​“gaseous​ ​compounds”​ ​that​ ​have​ ​the​ ​ability​ ​to​ ​absorb​ ​and​ ​retain​ ​heat​ ​in​ ​the​ ​atmosphere (livescience.com)​ ​.​ ​In​ ​recent​ ​years​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​greenhouse​ ​gases​ ​being​ ​released​ ​have 
drastically​ ​increased​ ​causing​ ​the​ ​earth’s​ ​temperature​ ​to​ ​increase​ ​rapidly​ ​and​ ​consequently affecting​ ​many​ ​ecological​ ​environments.  
Climate​ ​change​ ​has​ ​been​ ​around​ ​for​ ​thousands​ ​of​ ​years​ ​but​ ​the​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​we​ ​are facing​ ​now​ ​is​ ​different.​ ​According​ ​to​ ​Susan​ ​Soloman,​ ​an​ ​atmospheric​ ​chemist​ ​with​ ​a​ ​PhD​ ​in chemistry,​ ​if​ ​all​ ​carbon​ ​emissions​ ​came​ ​to​ ​an​ ​end​ ​in​ ​this​ ​instant,​ ​changes​ ​in​ ​the​ ​climate​ ​would​ ​be irreversible.​ ​Because​ ​of​ ​the​ ​time​ ​it​ ​takes​ ​for​ ​carbon​ ​to​ ​decompose​ ​the​ ​temperature​ ​would​ ​remain the​ ​same.​ ​The​ ​temperature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​earth​ ​has​ ​increased​ ​about​ ​1.1​ ​to​ ​1.6​ ​degrees​ ​Fahrenheit​ ​in​ ​just the​ ​last​ ​century (nationalgeographic.com).​ ​About​ ​a​ ​dozen​ ​of​ ​those​ ​years​ ​were​ ​recorded​ ​as​ ​the 
hottest​ ​in​ ​a​ ​human​ ​history.​ ​The​ ​industrial​ ​revolution​ ​has​ ​had​ ​a​ ​great​ ​impact​ ​on​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​of greenhouse​ ​gases​ ​released,​ ​especially​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide.​ ​According​ ​to​ ​research​ ​from​ ​the​ ​United States​ ​Environmental​ ​Protection​ ​Agency,​ ​​ ​the​ ​start​ ​of​ ​the​ ​industrial​ ​revolution​ ​was​ ​responsible for​ ​the​ ​increase​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide.​ ​Humans​ ​now​ ​release​ ​about​ ​forty​ ​percent​ ​more​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide now​ ​than​ ​the​ ​amount​ ​released​ ​prior​ ​to​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution.​ ​Before​ ​the​ ​Industrial​ ​Revolution nature,​ ​more​ ​specifically​ ​volcanoes,​ ​were​ ​the​ ​source​ ​that​ ​released​ ​the​ ​most​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide.​ ​Now, 
the​ ​US​ ​Geological​ ​survey​ ​indicates​ ​that​ ​humans​ ​release​ ​135​ ​times​ ​more​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​than​ ​the volcanoes​ ​(epa.gov).This​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​the​ ​release​ ​of​ ​the​ ​gas​ ​has​ ​already​ ​shown​ ​how​ ​the environment​ ​could​ ​be​ ​altered​ ​and​ ​possibly​ ​destroyed.​ ​A​ ​number​ ​of​ ​things​ ​have​ ​already​ ​began​ ​to change.  
graph of global temp
For​ ​example,​ ​the​ ​level​ ​of​ ​the​ ​sea​ ​has​ ​already​ ​risen​ ​and​ ​ocean​ ​is​ ​becoming​ ​more​ ​acidic. The​ ​level​ ​of​ ​the​ ​sea​ ​rises​ ​simply​ ​because​ ​the​ ​water​ ​is​ ​getting​ ​warmer​ ​causing​ ​it​ ​to​ ​expand.​ ​The acidity​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ocean​ ​increases​ ​due​ ​to​ ​the​ ​reaction​ ​between​ ​the​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​in​ ​the​ ​atmosphere and​ ​the​ ​salt​ ​water.​ ​This​ ​reaction​ ​can​ ​have​ ​devastating​ ​consequences​ ​to​ ​the​ ​marine​ ​life​ ​and​ ​to​ ​the people​ ​that​ ​rely​ ​on​ ​the​ ​sea​ ​animals​ ​as​ ​their​ ​main​ ​source​ ​of​ ​food.​ ​In​ ​addition,​ ​the​ ​life​ ​in​ ​the​ ​earth’s poles​ ​are​ ​being​ ​affected​ ​as​ ​well.​ ​Since​ ​the​ ​temperature​ ​rise​ ​began,​ ​the​ ​glaciers​ ​have​ ​been melting.​ ​The​ ​melting​ ​of​ ​glaciers​ ​is​ ​a​ ​great​ ​loss​ ​for​ ​the​ ​animals​ ​that​ ​inhabit​ ​them.​ ​As​ ​stated​ ​by​ ​Bill Fraser,​ ​a​ ​​ ​penguin​ ​researcher​ ​for​ ​30​ ​years,​ ​the​ ​number​ ​of​ ​penguins​ ​breeding​ ​has​ ​decreased​ ​in​ ​the last​ ​thirty​ ​years​ ​from​ ​32,000​ ​to​ ​11,000.​ ​An​ ​incredibly​ ​short​ ​time​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​great​ ​number​ ​of species​ ​have​ ​been​ ​lost.​ ​Furthermore,​ ​the​ ​overall​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​rain​ ​around​ ​the​ ​world​ ​has​ ​increased signifying​ ​that​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​has​ ​slowly​ ​changed​ ​the​ ​weather​ ​pattern.​ ​It​ ​has​ ​been​ ​predicted​ ​that by​ ​the​ ​end​ ​of​ ​the​ ​century​ ​sea​ ​levels​ ​could​ ​rise​ ​up​ ​seven​ ​to​ ​twenty-three​ ​inches,​ ​hurricanes​ ​will​ ​be more​ ​severe,​ ​floods​ ​and​ ​droughts​ ​will​ ​become​ ​more​ ​common.​ ​To​ ​make​ ​matters​ ​even​ ​worse,​ ​if the​ ​Quelccaya​ ​ice​ ​cap,​ ​the​ ​largest​ ​glacier​ ​in​ ​Peru,​ ​continues​ ​to​ ​melt​ ​at​ ​the​ ​same​ ​rate​ ​it​ ​is​ ​now, 
fresh​ ​water​ ​will​ ​not​ ​be​ ​available​ ​for​ ​the​ ​people​ ​who​ ​use​ ​the​ ​cap​ ​as​ ​their​ ​main​ ​and​ ​only​ ​source​ ​for water.​ ​It​ ​is​ ​redundant​ ​to​ ​say​ ​that​ ​it​ ​is​ ​vital​ ​to​ ​begin​ ​caring​ ​and​ ​looking​ ​after​ ​our​ ​home. 
Scientist​ ​have​ ​worked​ ​hard​ ​over​ ​the​ ​years​ ​to​ ​prove​ ​that​ ​the​ ​the​ ​recent​ ​increase​ ​in​ ​the earth’s​ ​temperature​ ​is​ ​because​ ​of​ ​humans.​ ​In​ ​a​ ​perfect​ ​scenario​ ​they​ ​would​ ​have​ ​the​ ​ability​ ​to have​ ​run​ ​an​ ​experiment​ ​on​ ​a​ ​“second​ ​earth”​ ​but​ ​since​ ​it​ ​is​ ​impossible​ ​a​ ​formula​ ​that​ ​is​ ​able​ ​to​ ​say whether​ ​or​ ​not​ ​humans​ ​are​ ​responsible​ ​for​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​was​ ​invented.​ ​Detection​ ​and attribution​ ​is​ ​the​ ​process​ ​in​ ​which​ ​a​ ​statistical​ ​model​ ​is​ ​used​ ​to​ ​relate​ ​simulated​ ​and​ ​observed variations​ ​in​ ​climate​ ​(Gillett​ ​22).​ ​The​ ​model​ ​is​ ​composed​ ​of​ ​coefficients​ ​that​ ​represent​ ​a greenhouse​ ​gas.​ ​Essentially​ ​if​ ​the​ ​statistic​ ​model​ ​shows​ ​that​ ​a​ ​regression​ ​coefficient​ ​is​ ​greater
than​ ​zero,​ ​then​ ​we​ ​can​ ​infer​ ​that​ ​the​ ​gas​ ​has​ ​an​ ​impact.  
Chief​ ​scientist,​ ​Kevin​ ​Arrigo,​ ​at​ ​Stanford​ ​University​ ​says​ ​that​ ​the​ ​ecosystem​ ​in​ ​the​ ​Arctic is​ ​changing​ ​faster​ ​than​ ​any​ ​other​ ​ocean​ ​which​ ​is​ ​why​ ​NASA​ ​plans​ ​on​ ​researching​ ​how​ ​life​ ​is changing​ ​because​ ​of​ ​climate​ ​change.​ ​The​ ​United​ ​States​ ​has​ ​tried​ ​to​ ​improve​ ​the​ ​well-being​ ​of​ ​our planet​ ​but​ ​recently​ ​our​ ​president​ ​has​ ​withdrawn​ ​from​ ​the​ ​Paris​ ​agreement.China,​ ​however,​ ​has agreed​ ​on​ ​reducing​ ​their​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​emissions​ ​by​ ​sixty​ ​to​ ​sixty-five​ ​percent​ ​by​ ​the​ ​year​ ​2030. 
They​ ​have​ ​also​ ​invested​ ​money​ ​into​ ​the​ ​research​ ​on​ ​clean​ ​energy.​ ​They​ ​have​ ​actively​ ​been​ ​trying to​ ​find​ ​a​ ​way​ ​in​ ​order​ ​to​ ​help​ ​care​ ​for​ ​the​ ​environment.​ ​Even​ ​though​ ​many​ ​still​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​climate change​ ​is​ ​not​ ​real.  
air pollution
Some​ ​scientist​ ​like​ ​those​ ​apart​ ​of​ ​the​ ​International​ ​Climate​ ​Science​ ​Coalition​ ​(ICSC) 
believe​ ​that​ ​climate​ ​change​ ​is​ ​due​ ​to​ ​natural​ ​causes.​ ​They​ ​argue​ ​that​ ​the​ ​we​ ​should​ ​focus​ ​more​ ​on the​ ​research​ ​that​ ​claim​ ​that​ ​the​ ​sun​ ​is​ ​the​ ​main​ ​reason​ ​for​ ​climate​ ​change.​ ​ICSC​ ​believes​ ​that carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​is​ ​essential​ ​for​ ​photosynthesis​ ​and​ ​life​ ​on​ ​earth​ ​so​ ​therefore​ ​it​ ​is​ ​not​ ​a​ ​pollutant (Climate​ ​Science).​ ​They​ ​also​ ​believe​ ​that​ ​the​ ​devices​ ​used​ ​to​ ​measure​ ​previous​ ​temperature​ ​was altered​ ​and​ ​is​ ​not​ ​trustworthy.​ ​However,​ ​only​ ​three​ ​percent​ ​of​ ​scientist​ ​don’t​ ​believe​ ​in​ ​climate change​ ​because​ ​there​ ​is​ ​a​ ​tremendous​ ​amount​ ​of​ ​research​ ​that​ ​proves​ ​otherwise.  
Even​ ​though​ ​some​ ​don’t​ ​believe​ ​in​ ​global​ ​warming​ ​and​ ​climate​ ​change,​ ​there​ ​is​ ​enough evidence​ ​to​ ​prove​ ​that​ ​it​ ​is​ ​in​ ​fact​ ​real​ ​and​ ​altering​ ​our​ ​planet.​ ​The​ ​main​ ​cause​ ​of​ ​climate​ ​change is​ ​humans​ ​and​ ​their​ ​increase​ ​release​ ​of​ ​carbon​ ​dioxide​ ​since​ ​the​ ​beginning​ ​of​ ​the​ ​industrial revolution.​ ​The​ ​effects​ ​can​ ​be​ ​seen​ ​clearly​ ​with​ ​the​ ​rising​ ​temperature​ ​of​ ​the​ ​earth,​ ​the acidification​ ​and​ ​expansion​ ​of​ ​the​ ​ocean​ ​and​ ​the​ lost​ ​of​ ​habitats​ ​of​ ​those​ ​species​ ​in​ ​the​ ​poles. Therefore,​ ​if​ ​we​ ​don’t​ ​take​ ​action​ ​immediately​ ​our​ ​great​ ​great​ ​great​ ​great​ ​grandchildren​ ​will​ ​not have​ ​the​ ​privilege​ ​of​ ​seeing​ ​polar​ ​bears​ ​and​ ​penguins.  
 polar bear on ice
  
 
  
 
 
 
 
Works​ ​Cited  
Lallanilla,​ ​Marc.​ ​​Live​ ​Science.​ ​​10​ ​Feb​ ​2015. 
www.livescience.com/37821-greenhouse-gases.html​.​ ​03​ ​July​ ​2017.  
Solomon,​ ​Susan.​ ​​Proceedings​ ​of​ ​the​ ​National​ ​Academy​ ​of​ ​Science.​ ​​No.​ ​6,​ ​16​ ​Dec​ ​2008, 
www.pnas.org/content/106/6/1704.full​.​ ​03​ ​July​ ​2017.  
US​ ​Environmental​ ​Protection​ ​Agency.​ ​​EPA,​ ​​2016. 
www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/overview-greenhouse-gases​.​ ​​ ​03​ ​July​ ​2017. 
US​ ​Environmental​ ​Protection​ ​Agency.​ ​​EPA,​ ​2016. 
19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/climate-change-science/causes-climate-change.​ ​​03​ ​July 
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