Quick Write

Why do we use sources?


Critical Thinking and Research

  • Identify important problems.
  • Explore relevant issues.
  • Evaluate available evidence.
  • Consider the implications of the decisions.

Critical thinking is NOT collecting information to support established conclusion.

  • Survey, considering as many perspectives as possible.
  • Analyze, identifying and then separating out the parts of the problem.
  • Evaluate, judging the merit of various ideas, claims, and evidence.

Why Use Sources?

  • To understand an issue
  • See what has come before
  • To find the facts
  • To inform and persuade your audience

You need to understand that research is connected with ethos, an appeal that establishes credibility with readers.

Ethos

Ethos is about values. In rhetoric we connect ethos to character, credibility, and trustworthiness. At their core, these concepts have to do with values. We tend to believe and trust those individuals who exemplify the values we cherish, who live the sort of life that we would want to live. Ethos Handout from University of Maryland

Ethos is inferred, NOT possessed. Five strategies for persuading through character.

  1. Personal info
  2. Sources
  3. Identification with Audience
  4. Point of View
  5. Balanced Presentation

5 Ways to Persuade with Character (Ethos) | How to Craft an Argument

Audience

Audience is quite possibly the most important thing to consider when writing an argument. You need to appeal to them, understand their problems, values, and beliefs, in order to convince them of your point of view.

Who your audience is should influence how you present your argument.

Who your audience is should influence how you present yourself.

Determine what is important to your audience. What do they really care about? What do they value?

Finding Material

  • Finding Quality Information Online (251)
  • Finding Articles Using Library Databases (254)
  • Locating Books (255)
  • Interviewing Peers and Local Authorities (256)

Evaluating Your Sources

Remember the Acronym CRAAP

  • C current
  • R relevant
  • A author
  • A accurate
  • P purpose

Ask yourself: “Am I choosing sources that represent a range of ideas, not simply ones that support my opinion?”

Taking Notes

  • Checklist for Evaluating Print Sources (262)
  • Checklist for Evaluating Electronic Sources (263)

Plagiarizing, Paraphrasing, and Common Knowledge

  • Checklist for Avoiding Plagiarism (267)

Compiling an Annotated Bibliography

  • Summary of Source, 2-4 sentences
  • How you are using it in your report, 1-3 sentences
  • Reliability of source, 1-3 sentences

Writing the Paper

  • Organizing Your Notes
  • The First Draft
  • Later Drafts
  • Organization
  • Choosing a Tentative Title
  • The Final Draft

Quoting From Sources

  • Incorporating your reading into Your Thinking: The Art and Science of Synthesis
  • The Use and Abuse of Quotation
  • How to Quote

Documentation

  • Use MLA or APA style
  • Note on Footnotes (and End notes)
  • MLA Format: Citations within the Text
  • MLA Format: The List of Works Cited
  • Checklist for Critical Papers Using Sources (306)

Annotated Bib

Chapter 11 in our textbook explains the purpose of an annotated bib. An annotated bib is a works cited or references page with additional information added to each citation. You begin with the correct reference citation for your sources. For this assignment we will have at least five sources.

Here is a good explanation of citations in MLA.

Explanation and example of an Annotated Bibliography from Cornell

Example 2 Annotated Bibliography from Purdue OWL

Here is the format:

Author(s). “Article Title.” Source, vol. #, no. #, season year, pp. xx-xx. Database, URL.

Example:

Kong, Les. “Business Sources for Education Majors.” Education Graduate Students Journal, vol. 75, no. 4, 2014, pp. 12-19. JSTORhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/52506788.

To each entry you will add the annotation, the paragraph or two that explains the source, why you are using it, and its reliability.

Each professor you will have in the future may have specific guidelines for what to include in an annotated bibliographic entry. Always follow their instructions.

For this assignment, you should include:

  1. Summary of Source, 2-4 sentences
  2. How you are using it in your report, 1-3 sentences
  3. Reliability of source, 1-3 sentences

In total, you should have a short paragraph, 4-10 sentences, explaining the three points above.

MLA Style

We will be going over the 8th edition MLA citation Style. You can look under our resources page for MLA or APA guides. There are three things to consider for each style guide you use:

  1. Page Formatting
  2. In-Text Citations
  3. Works Cited/References Page

Here is a Power Point presentation covering MLA style 8th edition and the recent changes.

Krikorian, Mark. “Two Immigration Priorities.” National Review, Dec, 2016, pp. 18-20, SIRS Issues Researcherwww.sks.sirs.com.

This article goes into detail on some of the other less talked about factors of the changes in how we deal with illegal immigrants under our new president and his policies. The author is the director of the Center for Immigration Studies so I assume he is a credible expert in immigration. I will use this source to get more specific in my critique of the border wall proposal.

Krikorian, Mark. “Two Immigration Priorities.” National Review, Dec, 2016, pp. 18-20, SIRS Issues Researcherwww.sks.sirs.com. This article goes into detail on some of the other less talked about factors of the changes in how we deal with illegal immigrants under our new president and his policies. The author is the director of the Center for Immigration Studies so I assume he is a credible expert in immigration. I will use this source to get more specific in my critique of the border wall proposal.

In total, you should have a short paragraph, 4-10 sentences, explaining the three points above.