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261, lesson

261 Sandburg and “Chicago”

Quick Write

Find a line or two from the Sandburg poem that connects to American identity.

Carl Sandburg (1878 – 1967)

Carl Sandburg Biography


The Art of Quoting

Quoting too little or too much can hurt an argument. It is very important to frame all quotations.

Be careful of quoting too little or quoting too much. Do not assume the quotations speak for themselves. Two key ways to integrate quotations that you need to keep in mind.

  1. Choose quotations wisely
  2. Surround quotations in a frame, Quotation Sandwich

Quotation Sandwich

  1. Introduce the quotation
  2. Quote, relevant
  3. Explain Quotation

quotation sandwich

Here is an example from one essay that uses the framing well.

“The Yellow Wallpaper” tells the story of a young woman suffering from a mental illness. The narrator first mentions her illness when she reflects, “I’m sure I never used to be sensitive, I think it is due to this nervous condition” (Gilman 487). She has no control of her emotions most likely due to her anxiety. Her illness is also troubling to as she laments, “[her] nervous are dreadfully depressing” (487). Her troubles stem from her separation of her child and her treatment which limits her physically and mentally. She mentions, “Such a dear baby! And yet I cannot be with him, it makes me so nervous” (488). It can be alluded that she suffers from postpartum depression and is not being adequately treated. As she is forced to remain isolated indoors, she becomes obsessed with the wallpaper in the nursery.


We use metaphors to help people understand what we are trying to say. Instead of explaining that life comes with many surprises and so on, you can use a simple metaphor.

Life is like a box of chocolates, you never know what you’re going to get.

Forrest Gump

The metaphor explains how Forrest sees the world. His philosophy of life that he learned from his mom. It’s short and explains a lot.

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