Researchers have stated that by the year 2050, there will be no more sea life. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can be many things, for example, toxic air pollution, poisoned soils, waterways, the ocean full of plastic, etc. Pollution can also lead to many health risks to humans and animals. There are also ways we can prevent the increase of pollution in the world one step at a time. We will discuss the amount of plastic that is in the ocean and the reasons for them being there. A way we can prevent pollution to the ocean is to recycle and use reusable items such as straws. Another way could be to find organizations that help clean up the pollution by donating to the cause.
There is about five trillion plastic pieces that weigh a grand total of 250,000 tons floating on the surface of the ocean (Eriksen et al. 1). Some people have been littering and just dumping their trash wherever they wanted without thinking about the consequences that come with their carelessness. Plastic pollution properties of buoyancy and durability have led some researchers to declare that the synthetic polymers in the ocean should be deemed as hazardous waste. Not just fish are consuming these plastics, even the tiniest zooplankton are consuming these toxic substances. These organisms are absorbing the toxic pollutants in the plastics right into their tissues and organs. Plastic is not the only pollution happening in our oceans. There are other things that are killing the sea life, and oil spills can be a contributing factor to harming and killing the sea life.
Oil spills have also become a tremendous impact on marine life because it affects their survival in the ocean. For example, if birds or animals get caught in the oil, they tend to try and clean themselves thus resulting the oil to become ingested and poisoning them. As for fish and shellfish, they are severely affected by oil pollution in three ways; a) direct lethal or sub-lethal effect on the fish itself; b) direct effect on fisheries, and c) indirect effect via ecosystem disturbances (Xhelilaj et al. 20). The most animals that are at risk are birds such as shags, razorbills, etc., because they love to float on water looking for fish to feed on. While sea mammals such as whales and dolphins are not particularly in danger, but otters and seals are because of their furs. The rely on their fur to regulate their temperature, if they did not have their fur they would succumb to hypothermia or overheating. Not only are animals have become affected by oil spills, humans are also affected. The air, fresh water, and the food we consume from the ocean. When individuals are exposed to oil pollution of the oil such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can be harmful because these elements are identified as carcinogens to humans (Clark, R.B, 91).
A way that pollution is preventable is to use reusable items that one would use every day. For example, the biggest controversy right now is plastic straws. If people start buying reusable or recyclable straws as the first step, it would help the environment. We do not need to ban straws all together, because there are individuals who are disabled and need these straws for daily use. There are companies out there that make reusable portable straws that you can bring with you anywhere at anytime of the day. They are also very inexpensive and come in many colors. Banning straws is not the way and is probably impossible to make it happen. If you do not like the taste of metal, there are other alternatives to having reusable straws. For example, there are bamboo straws, silicone, glass, or paper.
Another way we can help prevent or reduce the amount of pollution in the world is to find organizations that help clean up the waste and plastics. Here are some organizations that are dedicated in protecting the marine conservation; Oceana is the largest organization ever established since 2001 by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Oak Foundation, Marisla Foundation, and Rockefeller Brothers Fund. The Ocean Conservancy is another group working to protect special marine habitats, restoration of fisheries and reducing the human impact on the ocean ecosystems. Project AWARE Foundation is an organization that works with scuba divers to protect the underwater environment for a clean, healthy, and thriving ocean (10 Amazing Organizations). Those are the top 3 organizations that are devoted to protecting and cleansing the pollution all around the oceans. There is also another organization called 4Ocean that lets you buy a bracelet that will help their cleanups around Haiti. If you are unable to help with physical labor, you can also donate some money. It does not have to be more than ten dollars; a dollar is more than enough.
In conclusion, there are many ways to prevent or reduce pollution. The ones that were mentioned were switching to reusable and recyclable items and donating to organizations that help clean up the ocean. If we do not do anything about this influx of plastic or waste that cannot be broken down, our ocean will become a sea of nothingness. Meaning, there will no beautiful fish to observe, no seafood to eat for people who adore their flavors, just nothing in the ocean. There will not be any aquariums for people to visit as well, especially for the kids who love the ocean and want to see their favorite sea animal. Another recommendation to help the pollution, is to either clean up with your community, or other people who have the same mission as you.

CÎRŢÎNĂ, Daniela. “Considerations Regarding Air Pollution and Health Risks.” Fiability & Durability / Fiabilitate Si Durabilitate, no. 2, Nov. 2018, pp. 65–71. EBSCOhost,
This article is about the atmospheric pollutants and other chemicals in the air that result in health risks. It talks about the toxic potential of gases that are polluting our atmosphere. This article is credible. This article will help me with my research because it talks about all the risks from polluted air, toxic gases, vapors, and the illnesses that come with it.
Erickson, Anders C., and Laura Arbour. “The Shared Pathoetiological Effects of Particulate Air Pollution and the Social Environment on Fetal-Placental Development.” Journal of Environmental & Public Health, Jan. 2014, pp. 1–20. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1155/2014/901017
This article is about how exposure to certain air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors can be associated with adverse pregnancy and affects the fetal-placental development. This source is credible. I will be using this in my research because not a lot of people talk about the affects of pollution when it comes toward pregnant women. I think it would inform me and many as well.
Farrington, John W. “Oil Pollution in the Marine Environment III: Fates and Effects of Chronic Oil Inputs.” Environment, vol. 56, no. 5, Sept. 2014, pp. 12–25. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/00139157.2014.943626.
The article shows us the effects of the oil spills that were released repeatedly into the ocean. It also talks about the effects of other pollution to the marine organisms, and the increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons flux to lakes and coastal areas from fossil fuels. I hope this article is credible. I will be using this in my research to expose the oil spills and fossil fuels being used.
Landrigan, Philip J., et al. “Pollution and Global Health – An Agenda for Prevention.” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 126, no. 8, Aug. 2018, pp. 1–6. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1289/EHP3141.
This article starts off with reminding us about how pollution is being overlooked and a great global health threat that was responsible in 2015 for an estimated 9 million deaths and economic losses. They formed the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health to help understand the risks and health effects of pollution. This article is credible because of the Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health. This article will help in my research in finding ways to prevent pollution and lower the risks of health.

Xhelilaj, Ermal, and Shkelqim Sinanaj. “The Behaviour and Effects of Oil Pollution into Marine Environment and Oceans.” Scientific Journal of Maritime Research, vol. 24, no. 1, June 2010, pp. 19–25. EBSCOhost
The article/paper is about analyzing the latest developments in connection to the management of oil spills in the ocean. I believe this article is credible because of prestigious authors and organizations that deal with the pollution in the ocean. I will be using this in my research to support the impact of the clean up operations.