Ever wonder what the state of the world’s ocean would be in 2100? It doesn’t help that the inhabitants of Earth produce 300 million tons of plastic each year (Arnold 1). 8 million tons of plastic being dumped into the ocean annually. Once it enters the environment it never actually goes away because once in the ocean for a certain period of time. The Plastic shrinks down to five millimeters in length never being detected again (Baker 1). It is estimated that seventy percent of animals in the oceans are ingesting 8 kilograms of plastic each year (Baker 3). These vertebrae are vital because they feed on these microorganisms. Without marine life, most of the coral reefs will begin to deteriorate along with a vast amount of food. Biodiversity plays a key role in this because without our oceans wouldn’t be healthy and without a healthy ecosystem and biodiversity niche, the water from this ocean could become hazardous (Derraik 2). One solution that would help the plastic pollution on land would be to have a controlled area were the “Wax Worm Larvae” would feed on plastic. One of the only insects to feed and thrive on plastic (Arnold 3). In reality, this is how marine life feels like with all the plastic pollution entering their habitat. Once spoken about by Charles Moore “In 1998 in the United States alone, 30 million tons of plastic were produced annually” (2). Plastics are lightweight, strong, cheap, and durable making it perfect for manufacturers to a product from a wide range. These exact reasons are making plastics a serious hazard to the environment. “The threat of plastics to the marine environment has been ignored for a long time, and its seriousness has been only recently recognized” (Stefatos et al.). The amount of plastic dumped into the ocean each day is fourteen billion that’s 1.5 million pounds per hour (Moore 5). The threat that marine life has to deal with when encountering plastic debris is the primary mechanical described by Laist “meaning the see something floating in the water their first instinct is to eat it”. Due to ingestion of plastic debris and entanglement in packaging bands, synthetic ropes, and lines or drift nets. These are all the horrible and unnecessary objects the marine life has to overcome and adapt in order to survive in the 21st century. It is not only marine life that is being harmed by plastic debris sea birds are being in the same critical harming position as well, but it is also believed that seven hundred species could go extinct due to plastic debris. Current estimates two hundred and sixty-seven species worldwide have been affected, including eighty-four percent of sea turtle species! Really sea turtles one of the most majestic creatures in the sea. Have you ever swum with a Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia Myda? I have once when I was sixteen years old in Hawaii ABSOLUTELY one of the craziest and most memorable times of my life. Now eighty-four percent of them are becoming endangered forty-four percent of sea birds and forty-three percent of all marine mammals’ species who have been harmed and put on the endangered species list. (Smith 1) Plastic bottles are very much killing our oceans. What can we do to stop this? I am purposing that we use all the plastic we throw away and implement it into our architectural cultural throughout society. In a small town of a very tiny island in Panama, residents are described by Baker are “transforming plastic bottles into eco-friendly and stylish buildings. The person leading this project is Canadian Rober Bezue, he has developed this project because he has become fed up with cleaning bottles for years off beaches. Bezue’s solution was to construct an entire village of plastic called, the “Plastic Bottle Village” (Baker 5). Bezue stated “unless developed countries organize, unite, and educate the developing countries, and give them an incentive to pick-up and reuse the plastic bottles already discarded, we all lose. I want the world to realize that we can reuse plastic bottles in many other applications”. Why? Why plastic material for almost every product we use. Because it is cheap, affordable, and easy to manufacture. According to OurPlasticNetWorth.org in 2010. 192 countries bordering the Atlantic, Mediterranean, and the Black Sea produced “2.5 billion metric tons of solid waste was produced” (Baker 3). An estimated 8 million metric tons of plastic entered the ocean that same year in 2010. 2 billion people within 30 miles of the coast create 100 million metric tons of coastal plastic waste. How much is created around the world? 2.5 billion metric tons of solid waste is produced all around the world. Within that “275 million metrics” ton is a plastic waste (Baker 3). That’s 9.0909 pounds of plastic per person on the planet. To give you an example of what 1 metric ton is equivalent too is about 2204.62 pounds. So what’s the outcome if we don’t stop abusing plastic waste and throwing it into our oceans. The outcome? These plastic bottle houses keep houses thirty-five degrees cooler in Panama jungle. Panama is far more humid and hotter than the United States because Panama is closer to the equator meaning more heat rises on their continent (Baker 6). Twenty-thousand bottles would need to produce one house while being stuffed between wire mesh and the final step would be to cover the walls with concrete to keep it steady. An average person will consume fourteen to eighteen-thousand bottles in their lifetime (Baker 6). If you make a plastic bottle house made of twenty-thousand bottles you’ve become plastic bottle neutral, meaning it was like you’ve never thrown a plastic bottle away every in your lifetime. Prices would start out at $19,000 for an 800 per square meter lot according to their website PlasticBottleVillage.com. This is the future if we can’t get rid of the problem make a solution to the problem. What can we do? First, reduce plastic waste in waste streams. Second, improve solid waste management. Third, and lastly is to increase the capture and reuse of plastic items. It’s up to us to protect our oceans!

Annotated Bibliography 

Garrard, Samantha, et al. “Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification: A Postgraduate Perspective on Research Priorities.” Marine Biology, vol. 160, no. 8, Aug. 2013, pp. 1789–1805. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s00227-012-2033-3.     http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eih&AN=89600216&site=ehost-live.  This research paper is studying the effects of pollution on marine life acidification (OA). Over the past decade, studies have revealed high levels of intra- and interspecific organism changes within the same time as water pollution has increased here in the United States. This source will help able to use the data they have found to show the effects of ocean pollution over the last decade. This is very well a credible source having been peer reviews by scientist and also postgraduate students. 

Talvitie, Julia, et al. “Solutions to Microplastic Pollution – Removal of Microplastics from Wastewater Effluent with Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technologies.” Water Research, Pergamon, 2 July 2017, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0043135417305687.  The Research paper by four scientists in Finland is suggesting a solution to the removal of microplastic from wastewater with the help of advanced wastewater treatment technologies. We drink microplastic waste in the water we drink and not only is it being consumed by humans it is being consumed by billions of marine life as well. This will help my proposal find a healthy yet eco-friendly solution for eliminating ocean pollution. Department of Built Environment, Aalto University, and Finland Sib Labs have published this under an Environment Institute making this a reliable source.

Derraik, Jose G. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 44, Pergamon Press, 2003. The book  Marine Pollution Bulletin addresses the plastic debris harming and killing millions of marine wildlife. Not tending too this issue will mean a result of which we do not have these majestic creatures anymore roaming in our oceans all because of plastic litter. I will be showing the effects the plastic debris has one other larger marine wildlife versus the microplastics in the world’s ocean. The book was written by Dr. Jose G.B Derraik from the Ecology and Health Research Centre, Department of Public Health in Otago New Zealand. 

Arnold, Carrie. “This Bug Can Eat Plastic. But Can It Clean Up Our Mess?” National Geographic. April 24, 2017. Accessed June 25, 2019. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/04/wax-worms-eat-plastic-polyethylene-trash-pollution-cleanup/. In this article they experiment with an insect called the Wax Worm Larvae which feeds on plastic. Trying to implement this on a nation or even global scale would be very hard and tricky so that is why I am putting it in my introduction as a possible solution but not a probable one. It will help me grab my readers and wanting them to know if this method of cleaning plastic pollution is actually possible.

Baker, Maverick, and Maverick Baker. “How to Eliminate Plastic Waste and Plastic Pollution with Science and Engineering.” Interesting Engineering. September 24, 2018. Accessed June 25, 2019. https://interestingengineering.com/how-to-eliminate-plastic-waste-and-plastic-pollution-with-science-and-engineering. This entire journal is amazing this one really opened my eyes to all the possible outcomes of plastic solutions. I believe this will be the journal that I will use to help determine my solution. Being credible on a number of reason but the one that stood out to me is that they are partnered with the nature conservation natural center for all things green and wildlife. 

Merchant, Brian. “By 2100, Earth Will Have an Entirely Different Ocean.” Vice, VICE, 13 Aug. 2015, www.vice.com/en_us/article/bmjqvz/by-2100-everything-you-know-about-the-ocean-will-be-wrong. This article has some interesting and yet compelling arguments about plastic pollution and what the oceans will be like in the future to come. The evidence is very much credible by Mr. Merchant who’s been investigating this issue and studying the issue for quiet some time. I will be using this article in my essay to help give my elevator pitch in my introduction. 

https://vimeo.com/182464603 this is the video of Rober Bezue and his plastic bottle village. 

If you’d life to help protect our oceans visit this website to learn more. Its up to us to PROTECT our OCEANS! http://www.ourplasticnetworth.org

Plastic Bottle Home Finished
Plastic Bottle Home Under Construction
What Marine Life Feel Because of Plastic Pollution