In your own words, what is the difference between persuasion and argument? Is there a difference?
In small groups, design and color a board with your explanation, definition, and examples for your term.
Using Rhetoric Notes
- So What?
Argument – a reason or set of reasons given with the aim of persuading others that an action or idea is right or wrong.
Remember, an argument uses reasons and evidence to persuade. Have you provided enough reasons and evidence to convince us of your position?
Keep these things in mind.
- Peer edit the same way you revise your own work.
- Be specific in identifying problems or opportunities.
- Offer suggestions for improvement.
- Praise what is genuinely good in the paper.
What Makes a Good Life?
The Ted Talk “What Makes a Good Life” by Robert Waldinger.
What is he arguing?
Find examples of Ethos, Logos, Pathos.
- a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument.
- a failure in reasoning that renders an argument invalid.
- faulty reasoning; misleading or unsound argument.
We will be talking about fallacies today. These are general definitions of a fallacy.
- In your own words, what is a fallacy?
- What fallacies have you heard of?
Intro to Fallacies
Fallacies are connected to the different appeals: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
- Ethos is appeals to credibility or character
- Logos is appeals to logic and reason
- Pathos is appeals to feelings or emotions.
Appealing to ethos or pathos is not in itself a fallacy, only appealing to them or using them unethically is. Here is an example of a fallacy used to persuade.
Why do we say this is a fallacy?
- Argument: A conclusion together with the premises that support it.
- Premise: A reason offered as support for another claim.
- Conclusion: A claim that is supported by a premise.
- Valid: An argument whose premises genuinely support its conclusion.
- Unsound: An argument that has at least one false premise.
- Fallacy: An argument that relies upon faulty reasoning.
- Booby-trap: An argument that, while not a fallacy itself, might lead an inattentive reader to commit a fallacy.
This is a great resource for further reading on fallacies and how they are not so simple. The article lists 223 of the most common fallacies.
I do not expect you to know them all or to never use any. Fallacies are controversial. We appreciate logic and honesty in Western rhetorical thinking and that is at odds with many fallacies.
Fallacies are not necessarily wrong, they work very well and are very good at persuading people. Fallacies are considered unethical and so we try to avoid them. They are thought of as flaws in thought, tricks, and sneaky uses of persuasion to convince others.