Quick Write

What is prejudice?

Prejudice – preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.

What monster theory can help us better understand prejudice? What one do you see as connected to it?

Why does this matter?

Types of diversity, include, but are not limited to: race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, socioeconomic status, religion, and disability.

Monster Theory

  1. Thesis I. The Monster’s Body Is a Cultural Body (4)
  2. Thesis II. The Monster Always Escapes (4)
  3. Thesis III. The Monster Is the Harbinger of Category Crisis (6)
  4. Thesis IV. The Monster Dwells at the Gates of Difference (7)
  5. Thesis V. The Monster Polices the Borders of the Possible (12)
  6. Thesis VI. Fear of the Monster Is Really a Kind of Desire (16)
  7. Thesis VII. The Monster Stands at the Threshold . . . of Becoming (20)

Monster Theory Class Notes

Creating Structure

People have been writing causal analyses for centuries. Here is the title page of Edward Jenner’s 1798 publication, An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae. His research led to the vaccine for small pox.

An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ, Or Cow Pox. 1798 By Edward Jenner

Small pox has been all but eradicated by modern medicine. By the careful study of small pox focusing on the causes and effects, he was able to develop a vaccine to save human life.

Asking Why

Why College Students Aren’t Voting

What is the question  you are exploring? Use why, how, and what if to come up with your question.

Why do we have some many school shootings?

Why did Harvey Weinstein get away with it for so long?

Explain why something happened

  • Intro
  • First cause
  • second cause
  • best cause
  • Conclusion

Explain the consequences of a phenomenon

Open by describing the situation that will have consequences.

  • Intro
  • first effect likely to follow + reasons
  • other effects + reasons
  • Conclusion

Suggest an alternative view of cause and effect

In this one, you are refuting someone else’s cause and effects.

  • Intro
  • reason to doubt claim + evidence
  • alternative cause
  • best cause + reasons/evidence
  • Conclusion

Explain a chain of causes

Much like the Ed Gein work we did last class, you can connect a line of causes that operate in order.

  • Introduction suggestion the chain
  • First link + evidence
  • next link + evidence
  • final link + evidence
  • Conclusion

These are all just suggestions. If one of these fits into how you are organizing your causal analysis, definitely use it. You can also come up with your own structure, but remember it needs to makes sense, that is be logical to anyone reading it, and use evidence to support each point.

Developing your Essay

  1. Present a reasonable thesis statement.
    • Make it logical
    • Make it supportable
    • Don’t use absolutes, instead use
      • may be
      • a contributing factor
      • main reason
  2. Limit your discussion to recent and major causes or effects.
  3. Organize your essay clearly.
    • Use one of the formats above
  4. Convince your reader that a causal relationship exists by showing how the relationship works.
    • Use specific details and examples to show the relationship.

Causal Relationships

Causality: the relationship of cause and effect

You should identify the types of causal relationships on your charts (you might use different types of arrows, different colors, or simply labels to show what kind of cause is being mapped).

  • Necessary Cause: any factor that must be in place for something to occur.
  • Sufficient Cause: is a condition that always produces the effect in question.
  • Precipitating Cause: the proverbial straw that breaks a camel’s back.
  • Proximate Cause: nearby and often easy to spot.
  • Remote Cause: may act at some distance from an event but be closely tied to it.
  • Reciprocal Cause: you have a reciprocal situation when a cause leads to an effect that, in turn, strengthens the cause.
  • Contributing Factors: add to the causes to bring about the effect.


  • Final Draft Essay 4 Due